An amphora is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least . Amphorae dated to approximately BC have been found in Banpo, a Neolithic site of the Yangshao culture in China. Amphorae first.
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- Italian amphora dating from the 2nd century BC on the ocean floor of Stock Photo: - Alamy
- Amphora Types According to Dressel
The sherd is sub-trapezoidal in plan with a flat cross section, of the five breaks two are worn with the rest fresh. The fabric has a pink-orange outer surface with a pale grey core and has been sand tempered. There are also regular c. The interior sur… Created on: Wednesday 8th February Last updated: Thursday 16th February Spatial data recorded.
This findspot is known as 'Kingston Seymour CP', grid reference and parish protected.
East Riding of Yorkshire Workflow stage: Awaiting validation A fragment of a Roman ceramic amphora, dating to the period c. The fragment is from a handle, and is oval in cross-section, although it expands out to a sub square in cross-section where it would have attached to the body. It is light buff and brown in colour, with a reduced core and oxidised outer.
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It has a fine sand temper. A hollow from the impression of a thumb is situated where the handle starts to expand out. The amphora fragment measures Friday 9th September Last updated: Monday 17th October Spatial data recorded. Awaiting validation A Roman amphora body sherd, possibly Dressel The exterior is hard, buff, containing grit, calcite and very small quartzite inclusions.
The fabric is oxidised, granular, beige and of coarse texture with grit and possibly some calcite filler and voids. Notably a very thin, discontinuous, white line approximately parallels the outer surface. It dates to between c0 to c AD and it is moderately abraded. The length is 44 mm , width 24 mm , thickness 14 mm and the weight, 9. Sunday 9th August Last updated: Thursday 4th February Spatial data recorded. This findspot is known as 'Watercrook', grid reference and parish protected.
Awaiting validation A body sherd probably of Roman amphora. The exterior is hard, pink; the inner face is light grey: The fabric is oxidised, pink with scant grit filler. It is dated to between c43 and c AD and is lightly abraded. The length is 61 mm , width 50 mm , thickness 13 mm and the weight, The exterior is hard, pink-beige; the inner face is very light pink with several medium-sized grit inclusions.
The fabric is oxidised and has some grit inclusions, voids and a pronounced lamination mid-core that is parallel to the two faces. It is dated to between c43 and c AD and is moderately abraded. The length is 25 mm , width 17 mm , thickness 11 mm and the weight, 3. The exterior is hard, pink-grey with very few, very small quartzite or mica inclusions. The fabric is oxidised, pink-beige, with grit filler and some voids. It is dated to between c43 to c AD and is lightly abraded. The length is 49 mm , width 41 mm , thickness 18 mm and the weight, The exterior is hard, grey-pink with very few, very small quartzite or mica inclusions.
The fabric is oxidised, pink-beige, with scant grit filler, a few calcareous inclusions and some voids. The length is 55 mm , width 47 mm , thickness 19 mm and the weight, The exterior is hard, pink-grey; the inner face is grey-pink with a patch of possibly ferrous, rusty colour. It dates to between c43 and c AD and is moderately abraded. The length is 45 mm , width 31 mm , thickness 13 mm and the weight, Monday 10th August Last updated: The length is 29 mm , width 14 mm , thickness 19 mm and the weight, 7.
The exterior is hard, buff, containing grit, calcite and few and very small quartzite inclusions. The fabric is oxidised, granular, slightly darker grey-pink and of coarser texture with some voids. It dates to between c0 to c AD and it is lightly abraded. The length is mm , width 90 mm , thickness 22 mm and the weight, g. Thursday 6th August Last updated: Awaiting validation A fragment of a Roman wheel made ceramic vessel possibly a hollow foot amphorae. The fabric is orange in colour.
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The base is flat, there are circular impressions within a smooth The base is an approx. Thursday 12th November Last updated: Friday 13th November Spatial data recorded. Back to simple search Back to advanced search Map results Login or register so you can export data. Only results with 3D content: Material Ceramic 41 Pottery 8 Earthenware 7. Workflow Validation 46 Published A stamp usually was applied to the amphora at a partially dry stage. Painted stamps, tituli picti , recorded the weight of the container and the contents, and were applied after the amphora was filled.
The first systematic classification of Roman amphorae types was undertaken by the German scholar Heinrich Dressel. Following the exceptional amphora deposit uncovered in Rome in Castro Pretorio at the end of the s, he collected almost inscriptions from amphorae and included them in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. In his studies of the amphora deposit he was the first to elaborate a classification of types, the so-called "Dressel table",  which still is used today for many types. Subsequent studies on Roman amphorae have produced more detailed classifications, which usually are named after the scholar who studied them.
Ceramics of shapes and uses falling within the range of amphorae, with or without handles, are of prehistoric heritage across Eurasia, from the Caucasus to China. For example, the kvevri , common in the Republic of Georgia and the Caucasus, may be traced back to approximately BC. Amphorae first appeared on the Phoenician coast at approximately BC.
In the Bronze and Iron Ages amphorae spread around the ancient Mediterranean world, being used by the ancient Greeks and Romans as the principal means for transporting and storing grapes , olive oil , wine , oil , olives , grain , fish , and other commodities. Wooden and skin containers seem to have supplanted amphorae thereafter. They influenced Chinese ceramics and other East Asian ceramic cultures, especially as a fancy shape for high-quality decorative ceramics, and continued to be produced there long after they had ceased to be used further west.
Besides coarse amphorae used for storage and transport, the vast majority, high-quality painted amphorae were produced in Ancient Greece in significant numbers for a variety of social and ceremonial purposes. Their design differs vastly from the more functional versions; they are typified by wide mouth and a ring base, with a glazed surface and decorated with figures or geometric shapes. They normally have a firm base on which they can stand. Surviving examples bear the inscription "I am one of the prizes from Athens", and usually depict the particular event they were awarded for.
Painted amphorae were also used for funerary purposes, often in special types such as the loutrophoros. Especially in earlier periods, outsize vases were used as grave markers, while some amphorae were used as containers for the ashes of the dead. By the Roman period vase-painting had largely died out, and utilitarian amphorae were normally the only type produced. On a neck amphora, the handles are attached to the neck, which is separated from the belly by an angular carination.
There are two main types of neck amphorae:. There are also some rarer special types of neck amphora, distinguished by specific features, for example:. In contrast to the neck amphora, a belly amphora does not have a distinguished neck; instead the belly reaches the mouth in a continuous curve. After the mid-5th century BC, this type was rarely produced.
Italian amphora dating from the 2nd century BC on the ocean floor of Stock Photo: - Alamy
The pelike is a special type of belly amphora, with the belly placed lower, so that the widest point of the vessel is near its bottom. The pelike was introduced around the end of the 6th century BC. Another special type is the Panathenaic prize amphora , with black-figure decoration, produced exclusively as prize vessels for the Panathenaia and retaining the black-figure technique for centuries after the introduction of red-figure vase painting.
They contained the prize of oil from the sacred olive tree of the goddess Athena for the winners of the athletic contests held to honour the goddess, and were evidently kept thereafter, and perhaps used to store wine, before being buried with the prize-winner. They depicted goddess Athena on one side as seen on the second image on this page and the athletic event on the other side, e.
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- Italian amphora dating from the 2nd century BC on the ocean floor of Kas, Turkey, Mediterranean?
It was very heavy, although also strong. Around the middle of the 1st century BC the so-called Dressel starts to become widely used.
Amphora Types According to Dressel
It has been calculated that while a ship could accommodate approximately Dressel 1, it was possible to fit Dressel in the same space. At the same time in Cuma southern Italy the production of the cadii cumani type starts Dressel These containers were mainly used for the transportation of fruit and were used until the middle imperial times. At the same time, in central Italy, the so-called Spello amphorae, small containers, were produced for the transportation of wine. On the Adriatic coast the older types were replaced by the Lamboglia 2 type, a wine amphora commonly produced between the end of the 2nd and the 1st century BC.
This type develops later into the Dressel 6A which becomes dominant during Augustan times. In the Gallic provinces the first examples of Roman amphorae were local imitations of pre-existent types such as Dressel 1, Dressel , Pascual 1, and Haltern The more typical Gallic production begins within the ceramic ateliers in Marseille during late Augustan times.
The type Oberaden 74 was produced to such an extent that it influenced the production of some Italic types.
The Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis regions south-western and eastern Spain were the main production areas between the 2nd and the 1st century BC due to the distribution of land to military veterans and the founding of new colonies. Spanish amphorae were widespread in the Mediterranean area during early imperial times. The most common types were all produced in Baetica and among these there were the Dressel 20, a typical olive oil container, the Dressel , for garum fish sauce , and the Haltern 70, for defrutum fruit sauce.
In the Tarraconensis region the Pascual 1 was the most common type, a wine amphora shaped on the Dressel 1, and imitations of Dressel North-African production was based on an ancient tradition which may be traced back to the Phoenician colony of Carthage. These types developed into the Camulodunum , an amphora used for the transportation of Rhodian wine all over the empire.
Imitations of the Dressel were produced on the island of Cos for the transportation of wine from the 4th century BC until middle imperial times. Other types from the eastern Mediterranean Gaza , such as the so-called Late Roman 4, became very popular between the 4th and the 7th century AD, while Italic productions ceased. Some modern winemakers and brewers are using amphoras to provide a different palate and tastes to their products than are available with other aging methods.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the type of container. For other uses, see Amphora disambiguation. Amphorae designed for marine transport, taken from shipwrecks of the Bronze Age , on display in the Museum of Underwater Archaeology at Bodrum Castle , Turkey. The museum archaeologists have devised a rack and roping device to illustrate how the cargo might have been kept from shifting. Panathenaic prize amphora in the black-figure style, showing the goddess Athena. Ancient Greek vase painting and Pottery of ancient Greece.
Handbook to life in Ancient Rome. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. The transport amphorae from Euesperides: The maritime trade of a Cyrenaican city BC. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, Series in 4o No.